Gayana Botanica 2022-06-30T00:00:00-04:00 Alfredo Saldaña Open Journal Systems <p><strong>GAYANA BOTANICA</strong>, dedicated to the French naturalist Claude Gay, is a journal for the publication of original research in all areas of the biology of plants and fungi.</p> <p><strong>WoS Impact Factor:</strong> <strong>1.302</strong> (2020) 0.905 (5 years)</p> <p><strong>SciELO</strong> (Scientific Electronic Library Online): <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a></p> An updated checklist and literature review of Harpellales (Kickxellomycotina) and other endobionts associated with the guts of arthropods from Argentina 2021-05-31T10:00:52-04:00 Claudia C. López Lastra Merlin M. White Douglas B. Strongman Hiroki Sato Eliana Ordoqui Juan J. García <p>The objective of this work is to further the knowledge of gut fungi, inhabiting the digestive tract of mandibulated arthropods, traditionally the Trichomycetes (currently Kicksellomycotina), in Argentina. The geographical distribution of these endobionts, especially in aquatic insects, but also other arthropods, is updated as well as host records and site information. Fungal species (Harpellales), which mostly colonize immature stages of aquatic insects, were identified in members of Coleoptera, Diptera, Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera from different biogeographical regions, from the far North in Jujuy province to the southernmost point in Tierra del Fuego. The overall goal of this review is to consolidate all the published and unpublished records from the country in order to summarize their geographical distribution.</p> 2022-06-30T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Claudia C. López Lastra, Merlin M. White , Douglas B. Strongman, Hiroki Sato, Eliana Ordoqui, Juan J. García Post-fire vegetation dynamic in the locality of Rastrojos, central Chile 2021-04-19T16:08:29-04:00 Pablo I. Becerra César Figueroa Andrés Meza <p>Fires are a frequent type of disturbance in many ecosystems, with strong consequences for vegetation. Despite the common nature of fires in central Chile, few studies have monitored changes in vegetation after they have occurred. This work describes the dynamic of the vegetation in the town of Rastrojos, Maule region, after the mega-fire that occurred in the summer of 2017 in central Chile. In September 2018, the composition and density of the regeneration of woody species were sampled, differentiating whether they came from seed or vegetative resprout, and the coverage of woody and herbaceous layer, in quadrants that were sampled again in September 2020. It was also evaluated the abundance of adult individuals surviving the fire. Rapid, diverse and abundant vegetative regeneration was observed after the fire. Regeneration from seed, although present, was lower in richness and density. The woody and herbaceous cover showed a rapid post-fire recovery. Although there was an important initial pulse of recovery of the vegetation, after a year and a half since the fire, the diversity, abundance and cover stopped increasing, suggesting a stagnation of the recovery. Only the abundance of woody alien species continued to increase with post-fire time. Our results suggest that woody vegetation recovers quickly after fires, mostly from vegetative regeneration. We propose that post-fire restoration in central Chile should be based mainly on passive strategies, although enrichment is required in open sites without vegetative regrowth.</p> 2022-06-30T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Pablo I. Becerra, César Figueroa, Andrés Meza A new species of the endemic genus Centaurodendron Johow (Asteraceae, Centaureinae) from Alejandro Selkirk Island, Juan Fernández Archipelago, Chile 2022-03-01T15:30:41-03:00 Diego N. Penneckamp Alfonso Susanna Nuria Garcia-Jacas Gloria Rojas Lukas Mekis Tod F. Stuessy Carlos M. Baeza Patricio Novoa Philippe Danton Christophe Perrier <p>A new endemic species, <em>Centaurodendron schilleri</em>, is described from the Juan Fernández Archipelago, Chile. This is the third species of the endemic genus, <em>Centaurodendron</em>, which is closely related to <em>Plectocephalus </em>of the Chilean mainland. The new species is confined to Alejandro Selkirk Island, whereas the previously known species, <em>C. dracaenoides </em>and <em>C</em>. <em>palmiforme</em>, are confined to Robinson Crusoe Island. In morphological aspects, the new species is more distinct from the other two species than they are from each other. Molecular phylogenetic and biogeographic studies for island and continental species of these genera are in progress.</p> 2022-06-30T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Diego N. Penneckamp, Alfonso Susanna, Nuria Garcia-Jacas, Gloria Rojas, Lukas Mekis, Tod F. Stuessy, Carlos M. Baeza, Patricio Novoa, Philippe Danton, Christophe Perrier Richness and taxonomic representation of the genus Platanus in Santiago (Chile) based on PCR procedure on the LEAFY gene (LFY-i2) 2022-04-08T15:06:33-04:00 Sergio A. Castro Felipe Sobarzo Martín R. Carmona Camilo Castro-Comte Juan Pablo Castro-Comte Javier A. Figueroa <p>Species of the genus <em>Platanus </em>are widely distributed around the globe, due to their ornamental use. Although there are 10 valid species, an undetermined number of hybrids have been generated from them. Therefore, in different cities where these taxa have been planted -including Chilean cities- the diversity and taxonomic representation of Platanus is confusing and controversial. Through a PCR -based procedure on the LEAFY gene (<em>LFY</em>i2), an informative gene to identify <em>Platanus </em>species, we analyzed the diversity of the genus in Santiago, measuring also its representation. We sampled 269 <em>Platanus </em>trees distributed in streets and avenues of Santiago, showing that there are at least seven taxa, including the species <em>P. occidentalis </em>and <em>P. orientalis</em>, and five hybrid taxa; one of them is <em>P</em>. × <em>hispanica</em>, while the other four have no discernible origin from Leafy-i2 (here called <em>Platanus </em>A, <em>Platanus </em>B, <em>Platanus </em>C and <em>Platanus </em>D). In terms of representation, the set of hybrid taxa accumulated 84.7% of the trees sampled; while <em>P. orientalis </em>and <em>P. occidentalis </em>together accumulated 15.3% of the trees. Of the species, <em>P</em>. <em>orientalis </em>was the most frequent (14.9%), while among the hybrids, the most frequent was <em>Platanus </em>A (40.8%); in contrast, <em>P</em>. × <em>hispanica </em>represented a low proportion of the sample (1.9%). These results confirm the presence of <em>P. occidentalis</em>, <em>P. orientalis </em>and <em>P</em>. × <em>hispanica </em>in Santiago; however, the cumulative representation of these three taxa (17.2%) is lower than that of undetermined hybrids (82.8%). The taxonomic recognition and representation of <em>Platanus </em>specimens in Santiago is an important tool for projecting future urban tree planting efforts, especially in view of the ecosystem services provided by them.</p> 2022-06-30T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Sergio A. Castro, Felipe Sobarzo, Martín R. Carmona, Camilo Castro-Comte, Juan Pablo Castro-Comte, Javier A. Figueroa Asymbiotic germination of Chloraea disoides Lindl. (Orchidaceae), a critically endangered orchid endemic to Chile 2022-04-27T10:19:18-04:00 Diyanira Castillo-Novales Guillermo Pereira Hertes Cid Sergio Elórtegui Cristian Atala <p>Degradation of ecosystems is one of the main causes of the global decline in biodiversity. Many species are threatened with extinction and urgent actions are needed. <em>Chloraea disoides </em>is a critically endangered terrestrial orchid endemic to Chile. Our main goal was to evaluate the effect of three culture media in the asymbiotic germination of this species, aiming at its propagation in the long term. We tested the effect of Malmgren modified terrestrial orchid medium (MM), modified Murashige &amp; Skoog medium (MS1/2), and agar-water (AW). After one week of incubation, seeds in all three media reached pre-germination stage. After four weeks, germination was achieved in MM and MS1/2. Protocorm stage was reached after 6 weeks only in MM. After 13-14 weeks, embryos reached the rhizoid stage in MM and MS1/2 and did not further develop until the end of the experiment (week 16). Overall, asymbiotic germination was statistically higher in MM and MS1/2 compared to AW, but very low nevertheless, compared to other Chilean <em>Chloraea </em>species, being lower than 8%. The laboratory propagation of <em>C. disoides </em>could be a key strategy to avoid its extinction in the short term but further studies are needed to fully understand its low germination capacity.</p> 2022-06-30T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Diyanira Castillo-Novales, Guillermo Pereira, Hertes Cid, Sergio Elórtegui, Cristian Atala Interaction between plants growing together from germination to 2 years: A test of competition and phylogenetic closeness for Northeastern Mexico 2022-03-02T13:28:54-03:00 Enrique Jurado Joel Flores Jonathan Marroquín Marisela Pando-Moreno David Alberto Rodríguez-Trapero Humberto González-Rodríguez José Alejandro Selvera-Mancha Juan Ángel López-Carmona <p>Competition and facilitation are important factors affecting seedling survival. These factors probably affect plant distribution and abundance. Interactions between species relate to phylogeny, in that closely related species are likely to compete more for resources and facilitation is expected between more distantly related species. We tested for Tamaulipan thornscrub plants, grown with close and distant relatives if they differed in survival, length and weight of shoots and roots, assuming that closely related species would compete more than distant ones. We also explored whether seed mass was associated with plant size from 1-24 months after germination. We grew plants from Tamaulipan thornscrub, with a sibling or with one individual from other species from 1-24 months. Seedling survival was similar for all species when their seedlings grew alone or under competition, at 1, 6 and 12 months. At 24 months seedling survival of <em>Vachellia farnesiana </em>was lower when grown with <em>Havardia pallens</em>. There was no evidence of stronger competition or facilitation for phylogenetically closer species. Seedling size correlated with seed mass one month after germination but not after 6 months. Maximum and mean adult plant height did not correlate with seed mass or with plant height in our trials. We found no evidence of phylogeny explaining nearest neighbors in competition during germination for Tamaulipan thornscrub.</p> 2022-06-30T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Enrique Jurado, Joel Flores, Jonathan Marroquín, Marisela Pando-Moreno, David Alberto Rodríguez-Trapero, Humberto González-Rodríguez, José Alejandro Selvera-Mancha, Juan Ángel López-Carmona Weed risk assessment validation: the Australian system and its potential use on introduced plant species in Chile 2022-06-15T21:04:33-04:00 Nicol Fuentes Alfredo Saldaña <p>Assessing the status of introduced species already established in the country is crucial to avoid new invasions. In this study, we validated a modified version of the Australian Weed Risk Assessment (AWRA) for application in Chile. We calculated invasion risk assessment scores for 369 species, adapting the AWRA protocol for Chile (WRA-Ch). We used expert ranking, and the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve analysis method to validate. We calculated WRA-Ch scores for introduced species from the five categories proposed by Matthei (1995). Of the total species, 2 were accepted, 339 were rejected, and 28 resulted in second evaluation status. The expert categories differed significantly in the average WRA-Ch value. Major weeds and very serious weeds are the categories with the highest values. When evaluating the ability of the WRA-Ch to predict the invasive or non-invasive status of a species, the area under the ROC curve was 0.96, indicating an excellent ability of the WRA-Ch to differentiate between invasive and non-invasive plants. The validation of WRA-Ch for use in Chile represents an important step in preventing the introduction of new species. We suggest that WRA-Ch be used by government agencies in charge of biodiversity monitoring at the national level and border control. Validating WRA-Ch responds to the need to implement a national system of invasion risk analysis for species introduced into the country and those that are intentionally introduced or intercepted pre-border.</p> 2022-06-30T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Nicol Fuentes, Alfredo Saldaña Battarrea phalloides (Fungi, Basidiomycota) in central Chile: a fungal messenger of the megadrought? 2022-04-08T14:50:06-04:00 Götz Palfner Felipe González Steffan Valdés Josefa Binimelis Paolo Alzerreca Alexis Ceballos Roberto Sepúlveda Angélica Casanova Katny <p><em>Battarrea phalloides</em>, a conspicuous mushroom-forming fungus with worldwide but scattered distribution in xeric habitats, has a relatively recent history of records in Chile, with most locations in the arid north of the country. Recent findings of the species in central Chile, particularly in the Larger Santiago area, indicate its possible expansion towards higher latitudes. An update of the regional map of <em>B. phalloides </em>which includes records obtained from social media and common use databases, suggests a possible temporal and spatial correlation between the observed expansion and the regional climate phenomenon known as megadrought.</p> 2022-06-30T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Götz Palfner, Felipe González, Steffan Valdés, Josefa Binimelis, Paolo Alzerreca, Alexis Ceballos, Roberto Sepúlveda, Angélica Casanova Katny